Paul Spence

Senior Lecturer,
Climate Change Research Centre,
University of New South Wales,
Sydney, Australia, 2052

DECRA Fellow, Australian Research Council

Research Associate,
Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science
Ph: +61 2 9385 9766,
Fax: +61 2 9385 8969

Dr. Walter Munk signs my surfboard


  • (39) Downes, S., P. Spence, A. Hogg 2017: Understanding variability of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation in CORE-II models. Ocean Modelling,
  • (38) Courtois, P., . Hu., C. Pennelly, P. Spence, P. Myers 2017: Mixed layer depth calculation in deep convection regions in ocean numerical models. Ocean Modelling, 120, 60-78.
  • (37) Donat-Magnin, M., N. Jourdain, P. Spence, J. Le Sommer, H. Gallee, G. Durand, 2017: Ice-shelf melt response to changing winds and glacier dynamics in the Amundsen Sea Sector, Antarctica. JGR-Oceans, 122, 10206–10224. DOI: 10.1002/2017JC013059
  • (36) Maher, N., M. England, A. Sen Gupta, P. Spence 2017: Role of Pacific trade winds in driving ocean temperatures during the recent slowdown and projections under a wind trend reversal. Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-017-3923-3.
  • (35) Downes, S, C. Langlais, J. Brook, P. Spence 2017: Regional Impacts of the Westerly Winds on Southern Ocean Mode and Intermediate Water Subduction. J. Phys. Ocean., 47, 2521-2530.
  • (34) Spence, P., R. Holmes, A. Hogg, S. Griffies, K. Stewart, M. England 2017: Localized rapid warming of West Antarctic subsurface waters by remote winds. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/nclimate3335.
  • (33) Stewart, K., et al., 2017: Vertical resolution of z-coordinate models, Ocean Modelling, Ocean Modelling, 113, 50-65, 2017.
  • (32) K. Walsh, P. Govekar, A. Babanin, M. Ghantous, P. Spence, E. Scoccimarro, 2017: The effect on simulated ocean climate of a parameterization of unbroken wave-induced mixing incorporated into the k-epsilon mixing scheme, J. of Adv.. Earth Sys. Model, doi:10.1002/2016MS000707, 2017.
  • (31) N. Jourdain, P. Mathiot, N. Merino, G. Durand, J. Le Sommer, P. Spence, P. Dutrieux, G. Madec, 2017: Ocean circulation and sea ice thinning induced by melting ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea. JGR-Oceans, 122, 2550-2573, 2017. 8, 2017.
  • (30) Hogg, A., Spence, P., Saenko, O, 2017: The energetics of Southern Ocean upwelling. JPO, 47, 135-153, 2017.
  • (29) Dutkiewicz, A., Muller, R., Hogg, A., Spence, P., (2016): Vigorous deep-sea currents cause global anomaly in sediment accumulation in the Southern Ocean. Geology, 44(8), 663–666, 2016.
  • (28) Iliack, M., et al. 2016: An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of inter-annual CORE-II simulations. Part 3: Hydrography and fluxes, Ocean Modelling, 100, 141-161.
  • (27) Ypma, S, E. van Sebille, A. Kiss and P. Spence, 2016: The separation of the East Australian Current: a Lagrangian approach to potential vorticity and upstream control. JGR-Oceans, 121, 758-774.
  • (26) Wiang, Q., et al., 2016: An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of inter-annual CORE-II simulations. Part 2: Sea ice and solid freshwater. Ocean Modelling, 99, 110-132.
  • (25) Wiang, Q., et al., 2016: An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of inter-annual CORE-II simulations. Part 1: Liquid freshwater. Ocean Modelling, 99, 86-109.
  • (24) Stewart, K., P. Spence, S. Waterman, J. Le Sommer, J-M. Molines, J. Lilly, M. England, 2015: Anisotropy of Eddy Variability in the Global Ocean. Ocean Modelling, 95, 53-65.
  • (25) Menviel, L., P. Spence N. Golledge, M. England, 2015: Southern Ocean Overturning Role in Modulating High Southern Latitude Climate and Atmospheric CO2 on Millenial Timescales. Nova Acta Leopoldina, 121(408), 159-166.
  • (22) Saenko, O., D. Yang, J. Gregory, P. Spence, 2015: Separating the influence of projected changes in air temperature and wind on patterns of sea level and ocean heat content. JGR-Oceans , 120(8), 5749-5765.
  • (21) S. Downes et al., 2015: An assessment of Southern Ocean water masses and sea ice during 1988-2007 in a suite of inter-annual CORE-II simulations. Ocean Modelling , 94, 67-94.
  • (20) L. Menviel, P. Spence, M. England, 2014: Contribution of Antarctic Bottom Water changes to Antarctic warm events and atmospheric CO2 variations during MIS3. Earth Planetary Science Letters , 413, 37-50. pdf.
  • (19) S. McGregor, P. Spence, F. Schwarzkopf, M. England, A. Santoso, W. Kessler, A. Timmermann, C. Boning, 2014: ENSO driven Inter-­‐hemispheric Pacific mass transpots. JGR-Oceans , (9), 6221-6237. pdf
  • (18) Spence, P, S. Griffies, M. England, A. Hogg, O. Saenko, N. Jourdain, 2014: Rapid subsurface warming and circulation changes of Antarctic coastal waters by poleward shifting winds. GRL, 41 (13), 4601-4610. pdf
  • (17) Fogwill, C., C. Turney, K. Meissner, N. Golledge, P. Spence , J. Roberts, M. England, L. Carter, 2014: Testing the sensitivity of the East Antarctica Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean dynamics: past changes and future implications. Journal of Quaternary Science, 29 (1), 91-98. pdf
  • (16) England, M., S. McGregor, P. Spence, G. Meehl, A. Timmermann, W. Cai, A. Sen Gupta and M. McPhaden, 2014: Recently intensified Pacific Ocean wind-­‐driven circulation and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change, 4 (3), 222-227. pdf
  • (15) Spence, P., E. van Sebille, O. Saenko, M. England, 2014: Using Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches to Investigate Wind-Driven Changes in the Southern Ocean Abyssal Circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44 (2),662-675. pdf
  • (14) Morrison, A., Saenko O., Hogg, A., Spence, P., 2013: The role of vertical eddy transport in Southern Ocean heat uptake. Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (20), 5445-545-. pdf.
  • (13) Franckombe, L., Spence P., Hogg, A., England, M., Griffies, S, 2013: Sea level changes forced by Southern Ocean winds. Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (21), 5710-5715. pdf.
  • (12) van Sebille, E., P. Spence, M. Mazloff, M. England, S. Rintoul, O. Saenko,2013: Abyssal connections of AABW in a Southern Ocean state estimate. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(10), 2177–2182. pdf.
  • (11) McGregor, S., N. Ramesh, P. Spence, M. England, M. McPhaden, A. Santoso, 2013: Meridional movement of wind anomalies durind ENSO events and their role in event termination. Geophysical Research Letters , 40(4),749–754. pdf.
  • (10) Spence, P., C. Dufour, O. Saenko, J. Le Sommer, M. England, 2012: Mechanisms maintaining Southern Ocean meridional heat transport under projected wind forcing. J. Phys. Ocean., 42, 1923–1931. pdf.
  • (9) Spence, P, O. Saenko, W. Sijp and M. England, 2012: North Atlantic Climate Response to Lake Agassiz Drainage at Coarse and Ocean Eddy-Permitting Resolutions. J. Climate, 26, 2651–2667. pdf.
  • (8) W. Sijp, J. Gregory, R. Tailleux, P. Spence, 2012: The key role of the western boundary current in linking the AMOC to the north-south pressure gradeint. J. Phys. Ocean., 42, 628-643. pdf.
  • (7) Spence, P, O. Saenko, W. Sijp and M. England, 2012: The role of bottom pressure torques in setting interior pathways of North Atlantic Deepwater. J. Phys. Ocean., 42,110-125. pdf.
  • (6) O. Saenko, A. Sen Gupta, and P Spence, 2012: On challenges in predicting bottom water transport in the Southern Ocean. J. Clim., 25, 1349-1356. pdf.
  • (5) Montenegro A., P. Spence, K. Meissner, M. Eby, M. Melchin, and S. Johnson, 2011: Climate-carbon cycle simulations of the Permian-Triassic boundary: Ocean acidification and the extinction event. Paleoceanography, 26, PA3207. pdf.
  • (4) Spence, P, J. Fyfe, A. Montenegro, and A. J. Weaver, 2010: The Southen Ocean response to strengthening winds in an eddy-permitting global climate model. J. Clim., 23, 5332-5343. pdf.
  • (3) Spence, P, O.A. Saenko, M. Eby, and A. J. Weaver, 2009: The Southen Ocean overturning: Parametrized versus permitted eddies. J. Phys. Ocean., 39, 1634-1651. pdf.
  • (2) Spence, P, M. Eby, and A. J. Weaver, 2008: The sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to freshwater forcing at eddy-permitting resolutions. J. Clim., 21, 2697-2710. pdf.
  • (1) Spence, P, and A. J. Weaver, 2006: The Impact of tropical Atlantic freshwater fluxes on the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. J. Clim., 19, 4592-4604. pdf.

Publications in Progress:

  • (1) Menviel, L., P. Spence, M. Chamberlain, R. Matear, K. Meisner, M. England 2018: Abrupt early deglacial atmospheric CO2 increase driven by Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Nature Communications, submitted.
  • (2) Thran, A. et al. 2018: AControls on the global distribution of contourite drifts: insights from an eddy-resolving ocean model. EPSL, revised.
  • (3) Walsh et al. 2018: Changes in ocean heat content caused by wave-induced mixing in a high-resolution ocean model. JPO, revised.